Author Archives: Elsa

Pros and Cons of a Child Model Agency

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Whether your child has the ability to be the next Adriana Lima depends on whether a parent has the confidence to take the leap of faith and enable their child to pursue a career in modeling. Although it’s good to start young and enroll in a child model agency, there are hard choices to make.

Cons First

Let’s start with the cons! Then, shall we? Firstly, modeling is like any other job, requiring time, sacrifice, patience, and discipline; hard to ask from adults, and harder to ask from a child.

Children in their formative years are very active, constantly want to run and play, and rarely have any affinity for posing patiently in a studio. But this is only a con if a child doesn’t like modeling, or in worse cases forced into the industry. Remember this always, looking good alone isn’t enough. Anyone who wants to excel in modeling must have a good personality and work attitude as well. Hence, parents should only enroll a child into a modeling agency if he/she has the aptitude for modeling or loves the job.

Modeling has assignments throughout the day and you may get an important job during office hours. A child must be dedicated to going for a shoot after school, and a parent might have to request for time-off to send the kid to the assignment. It requires sacrifice to make it work. This then drives home the reason why a child must want to become a model at their own will.

There are many fake artists and scam agencies out there to exploit hopeful parents and families who want to see their kid become a famous model.

Key indicators of fake agencies include:

• Located in suspicious areas

• Guarantee you a job on the first day (Professional agencies know this process takes time)

• Call you for an appointment after office hours or odd timings

• Do not require a portfolio or contract (All good clients are attracted by your portfolio. It’s as important a resume.)


If the child has a vibrant personality, photogenic face and has aspirations of being a successful model, then modeling can be a very big pro. Kids, who become good models, do so because they like the perks of the work such as fame and attention.

A good kid model agency will have an extensive network of contacts, and your child might get exposed to big names and companies at a very young age. It presents a good opportunity to network, socialize and progress rapidly in later stages of a child’s career.

When the child hits their prime (teenage/youth) years, they can out beat their competition with more than just looks, but with significant experience in the industry. It’s always hard to tell if a kid wants to pursue modeling long-term, but if that is the case in future, acquiring experience from young matters.

Travelling is a possibility when joining a big modeling agency dealing with overseas clients and contacts. A family can use this opportunity to travel together while being the support for the child in their modeling endeavor.

A child filled with passion for modeling is sure to excel in it. As wise Confucius once said, “If you do what you love you never have to work a day in your life”. Modeling can complement a child’s development by giving them confidence with their physical body and instilling good work ethic and values. If there’s a child shows interest parents should not hesitate to create a new talent in the modeling world.


Sadequain’s Art – Influences and Inspirations

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Sadequain is a great thematic painter of Pakistan. He has worked in various styles ranging from linear to ‘painterly’ ones. Since he is a thematic painter with personal and individual observations of life, he opts to depict grotesque elements from inner and outer world, to find truth and reality. In this pursuit, he paints his canvases with figures which actually are characters taken from religion, history, mythology and literature, with backgrounds suggesting either the time period they belong to or the inward feelings they are spellbound with. The diversity in Sadequain’s work, both in technique and in thought, encompasses the wide range of influences and inspirations owing to different reasons and circumstances, the artist comes across throughout his life.

This paper will analyze the influences and inspirations that effected Sadequain’s art, intrinsically as well as extrinsically, to find out the sources and origins which generally cover mythology, religion, philosophy, drama and literature. This study will also unfold the influences of art movements or styles that inspired Sadequain’s art.

These inspirations and influences have served and fed Sadequain’s art in a manner that enables him to extract his themes from a variety of subject matters from gods and goddesses to the great thinkers and philosophers of Greece and Persia, in terms of characters, while in connection with literature, he touched Sophocles on one end and Shakespeare, Iqbal and Ghalib on the other. Whereas by composing his frames in a theatrical way, Sadequain has put on show conceptual as well as corporeal aspect of drama in life, an element that Baroque art is famous for.

Most of Sadequain’s paintings display elements like; exaggeration, horror, metamorphosis, drama and myth in their themes while as far as figures or characters are concerned, he has looked back into history, religion and mythology (regardless of origins i.e. Greek or Indian) to portray characters that can enrich and elaborate his themes, for this purpose Sadequain has painted, celestial figures, philosophers; who had great ideology and impact like Aristotle, Socrates, Ibn-i Khaldun, scientists ranging from early periods of enlightenment like Ibn-i Haisam, al-Khwarzami, or Ibn-i Sina, to the modern era of twentieth century known for new theories, where his brush personifies Einstein or Karl Marx.

Taking his themes into consideration first, we can find him a lover and admirer of the darker and crude form of life contrary to the beautiful, subtle and aromatic aspects. Since this concept of grotesque or malamat2 is not a new one in this part of the world as it has been discussed and displayed on various levels by different schools of Sufism that has got popularity in the subcontinent.

According to Akber Naqvi:

“Sadequain’s art enacted the drama of malamat in its Zahiri3 and batini4aspects-the coincidence and confusion of appearance and reality as awareness of truth in the definition of the self.”

(Naqvi 370-71)

The concept of Malamat has been in vogue in the Sufi tradition here in the subcontinent, where Sufis were not of view to adapt themselves to the clear and straight rules of life, rather they groped the reality through grotesque and more ritual way of life where, dance, music, intoxication and supernatural ambiance was created and strongly believed.

With this approach in life, Sadequain is expected to reveal the realities of life through dance, drama, and rituals in an ambiance, far fetched from the physical world and close to the mystic vagueness. These subjects help him in carrying out paintings with subjects matter taken from mythologies, and enactment of the rituals, which ultimately causes him in putting dynamism within his frame along with the concepts he painted upon.

In his thirst to paint themes under the inspirations and influences he has admired throughout his life, Sadequain is seen quenching his desires, through romantic and modern painting styles and concepts when he paints with self-conscious approach and themes (a romantic attitude) at one place while with abstract expressionism and symbolic style at the other. He also follows modern art techniques, wherever needed to give expression to his inner and individual thoughts.

As his interest has never faded out of mythological and religious concepts and literary epics and stories, from where his characterization has gotten enriched, he is also found indulged in emphasis, exaggeration, hyperbole, horror, theatricality (action, drama, movement), and dynamism which reminds us of the art of baroque style. Collectively, Sadequain was inspired from diverse influences that prevailed either in European art and literature or in the Eastern tradition of grotesque mysticism (Malamat).

Historically, man has recorded his rituals, dance and religious practices of great importance in the form of cave painting; the oldest form of expression. Most of the cave paintings do possess the chronicle elements ever since those paintings have captured a performance or an activity that was related to some ritual or religious doctrine, or the adventures and hunt scenes, which can give the impression that man has always been curious to record whatsoever was around his physical and emotional existence. This practice has been the most common and respected one even in the Stone Age in the subcontinent, which has enabled us to have an idea of life and beliefs that those people were leading and following.

The earliest images in the caves of Bhimbetka with simplicity in drawing, linearity and movement of the figures, suggest the dance or hunt movements of the characters; an expression that was later partially adopted by Sadequain.

Another ancient but comparatively modern concept of religious themes and personification of sacred figures through different forms of visual art could be found in the times of Buddha. The visual expression of Jataka Stories5, which were carved in stone at the Stupa of Sanchi and Amravati, or painted on the rocks of Ajanta Caves, served the religious beliefs to be converted from intangible form to the tangible shape. These stories, at the same time provided materials for actors and dancers of Ashoka6 period (268-233 BC) to act upon.

“Jataka stories can be described as an ‘encyclopedia of contemporary Indian life’ in all its aspects. These stories describe various previous births of Gautam Buddha and instructive episodes relating to them…. According to Buddhist tradition, the number of these stories is 550 out of which about 547 are available in a collection. Their delineation in stone forms a major part of early Buddhist art down from Ashokan times. Many Jataka stories are artistically engraved on the stone railings and toranas of Buddhist monuments such as those at Bharhut, Sanchi and Amravati stupas and are painted on the walls of Ajanta canves. They present an approximate panorama of Indian life between 600 BC to 300 BC.”

(Varadpande 116)

Since visual art is a record of events that have got immense importance in modern times, painting in particular captures figures, scenes, subjects or emotions that have been in existence prior to the moment of their rendering by the artist; so, there is possibility of overlapping of characteristics from one genre to the other. Therefore, the mythological and religious stories, characters, and moral values can get place in the paintings whenever they are rendered regardless of time. Art could adopt its characters and atmosphere from the religious doctrines, mythological concepts, literary ideas and folklore, which would be in fashion at the time, that art has been produced. As the extrinsic references have shown this quality of art as inevitable, Sadequain’s art, on specific ideas of mythology (Indian or Greek), religion and poetic expressions of Iqbal7, Ghalib8 and Faiz9, clearly indicates the contrast and diversity of nature in connection with social and religious life, related to certain circumstances.

Characters have always been the main feature in visual expression, in painting; they embody tragic and joyous emotions, representing life itself. But owing to its strong appeal and gripping nature, tragedy has got pivotal place in the life of human beings and a strong motivational force for any kind of natural expression.

Aristotle argued in the Poetics that tragedy:

“is a representation, not of men, but of action and life, of ‘happiness and unhappiness’ and that ‘happiness and unhappiness’ are bound up with action”

(Aristotle 39-40)

As tragedy, according to Aristotle, is the most important factor behind any creation or expression which leads one to ‘catharsis10’ and enhances the total impact of ‘happiness’ or ‘unhappiness’, the embodiment of these emotions are; characters who represent these emotions through their gestures, facial expressions and movements. Any kind of expression in art gives so much importance to the characters that are going to represent the subject or the theme of the artwork. In painting, characters are represented through figures and portraits, which reflect the desired emotions and convey them to the audience through the formal quality and variation of colour, texture, chiaroscuro, line and composition.

What importance of human expressions, in visual art, is well defined as under by Goodman:

“what is expressed is metaphorically exemplified”

(Goodman 85)

Through an art such as figurative or portrait painting, expression is achieved by imitating a figure or portrait of a well-known or ordinary person or character. Keeping in view the fact that human concerns are always behind any kind of artwork, one can assume the subject matter of a certain era.

Sadequain has dealt with his paintings in terms of characters, facial expressions, distortion, movement, texture, chiaroscuro and a planned and directed atmosphere, created through the collective representation of all the mentioned elements on a larger scale. His characters, in most of his paintings are ‘alive’ and dynamic in nature, busy in their work or duties. They do not seem to be posing or idle for the sake of painting only. He has also used facial expression of his characters within the frame to enhance his expression of the theme that is behind that painting. By distorting figures and other elements of the painting, Sadequain has always tried to get the desired effects of human struggle, and has put his idea or theme on a high pedestal in a loud style; as on stage, with the distortion of sound effect, the director of an act creates ambiguity to clear or prominent his theme or subject. His figures are actually characters of his themes and individuals full of energy, painted to convey movement or activity, according to the subject. Sometimes in his desire of conveying his concept or theme to the viewer with energy, Sadequain has also added symbolic expression with little or more exaggeration which has, in many of his paintings and drawings, created an ‘abstract expression’ based on ones innate and psychological experiences that can put his work under the label of ‘modern art’ while his self-centered approach has fashioned ‘romantic’ approach at the same time.

Texture and chiaroscuro are the vital elements of a painting to create the atmosphere or ambiance, Sadequain with his cross hatching brush, using dark and light areas, creates low degree of chiaroscuro. His paintings do no possess the dramatic light effects or light and dark contrasts as of some baroque style paintings by Caravaggio11, but even then his textures create an effect of ‘light and dark’ to suggest the positive and negative aspects of his themes. He is a romantic at some place, and modern at the other or both, at the same time. If we take him as ‘romanticist’ first, he is found to fall in this category due to some reasons.

As Jacquez Barzen states:

“As against poetic diction and ‘noble’ words, the romanticists admitted all words; as against the exclusive use of a selected Graeco-Roman mythology, they took in the Celtic and the Germanic; as against the uniform setting and tone of classical tragedy, they studied and reproduced the observable diversities known as ‘local color’. As against the antique subjects of and the set scale of pictorial merits prescribed by the Academy, they took in the whole world, seen and unseen, and the whole range of colors.”

(Barzun 59)

By analyzing these qualities of romanticists, we come to a point that romanticists were against restrictions and geographical bounds, first in terms of information and knowledge and later, in their expression, they were with an opinion that myths, legends, poetic expressions, pictorial merits and concepts were universal and they had nothing to do with a certain ethnicity.

By these standards, we can call Sadequain a romantic, as he adopts everything whatever he thinks to fulfill his pictorial and conceptual requirements. He goes for the mythology regardless of its origin; he takes on the journey to diverse ethnicities and derivation while painting his canvasses. He is also an observer of the whole world and universal pains, the humanity is exposed to, and rather than classical set patterns, he has also taken up the ‘observable diversities’ in creating his ‘local color’.

Barzun has commented between classic and romantic as:

“In common speech certainly, the sentiments aroused by the word ‘classical’ are those of repose and serenity, while the connotations of ‘romantic’ suggest restlessness and disorder.”

(Barzun 37)

If we apply the conditions of restlessness and disorder on Sadequain’s art and personality, the same result we can find which may advocate us to call him a romanticist. As we find his work against the static and acclaimed standards of academic art (even in a developing country like Pakistan), disorder, especially within his distorted figures, crudeness of form, and the dynamism, and the shades of restlessness, force us to label him as ‘greatly inspired by romanticists’ if not a romanticist himself. Sadequain’s own conception of life, which is also very much individual; the grotesque or Malamati, has caused a great deal of self-centeredness when he paints self-portraits within a painting or a drawing. The symbol of ‘cactus’ he has used for his life also refers to the individuality covered by the ego of a self-centered individual, who seems inspired of the romantic approach of inner and individual expression. The admiration of restlessness has made him quoting Iqbals concept of true Muslim (Mard-e Momin) in pictorial way; a well-known aspect of Sadequain’s work regarding inscription based painting. Other than Iqbal, he also painted upon the ideology presented in Ghalib’s verse, which is a direct extraction from the Persian tradition of egoistic literary expression, of which Ghalib has been proud.

In other words, contrary to the stationary and idle attitude (which is demarked as ‘classic’ in the west), Sadequain prefers movement and dynamism, and for that, he even goes for the associated disorder, that is obvious in his figurative distortion, this practice has proved him immensely inspired by the impatience romanticists are known for.

Moreover, Sadequain is also a modern artist, one of the reasons for this is his period, as he was born just after the World War I and saw World War II in his youth in a colonial country where agitation was on its peak by that time. He started work when the entire world was experiencing revolutionary changes, ideological as well as geographical, with new economic and philosophical theories were helping Communism12 and Socialism13 to spread around the globe. Individuality and self-respect was the new world order and it was farewell to slavery. Either it was physical or intellectual. Freedom of thought, expression, and beliefs made self-consciousness a common and accepted doctrine that strengthened the concept of ‘abstract expressionism’ and individual perception.

“The first striking trait of the modern ego is self-consciousness, I say self-consciousness rather than self-awareness, because I believe that in spite of much heart-searching, the modern ego is more concerned with the way it appears in others’ eyes than with learning fully about itself and admitting its troubles fearlessly. The romantics were introspective, too, but they did not fear ridicule as we do, which is why we accuse them of indecently exposing their innermost souls.”

(Barzun 117)

So, Sadequain is influenced and inspired by the modern ideology of self-consciousness as well. And if we could try, in the light of quoted paragraph, to put him under the category of self-consciousness or self-awareness, he would fall in the former one. But since he accepted so many diverse influences, it will be hard to categorize him under one label, but keeping his time in consideration and the approach he adopted towards life, we could say that he was more inspired by the romantic and modern ideology of painting at the same time while his work was a crucible of different inspirations and influences, regardless of origins and ethnicities.

Other than his paintings, the drawings and sketches in ‘pen and ink’ could also be categorized with the same qualities that could be identified as extracted from historical, mythological, religious or literary backgrounds. In his sketches, one might not find the chiaroscuro or the ‘painterliness’ due to the linearity of the technique, but the entire range of pivotal conceptual elements, he has used in his paintings, could be found in extremely skilled fashion.

A drawing in pen and ink under the title ‘Some other things to care about (1966)’ displays probability and action in its composition which, in two groups, exhibit the arrangement of an atmosphere where something is going to happen. The artist has given proper space between the two groups that may suggest the likelihood for some action as two figures are arranged in the right corner and three webbed figures in the left, but all in such a perspective that the space within and around them is visible to the onlooker. The webbed figures put on show the drama and the grotesque approach of the artist who seems concerned in portraying the pain of human beings since their birth to the eternal abode. A religious and mythical concept mostly portrayed and depicted in scriptures, mythologies and literature or in the form of holy ritual dance or the proper theatre in Athens performing Sophocles’ play.

Another painting ‘Two Graces (from aesthetics) 1970’, in pen and ink is like gratitude by Sadequain to the great western painting ‘Three Graces’. As the idea of this painting is the same as of the mythological painting by Rapheal in the early sixteenth century or by Picasso, later in the twentieth century. The movement, drama, and the characterization come by design within the frame. The stretch and the elasticity of the female bodies are endorsed as well as captured by arranging them in dance-like postures. The festivity and the lyricism have made this drawing a rhythmic performance. This work speaks high of the Western influence, Sadequain may have been under as one of many inspirations he has been exposed to.

Another pen and ink ‘The snake charmer (from observation 1970)’displays the aboriginal subject but Sadequain has, with folk subject and sensuous rendering, attracted the viewer. Moreover the combination of female body and the twirling snake, the concept of Vishkannya14seems obvious behind the painter’s imagination. The character of Vishkannya is associated with dance, while the curling, twisting and creeping movements of the snake, along with the venomous myth regarding Hinduism, help in creating a conceptual story as soon as one looks upon it. All these aspects make this painting ‘Thespian15’ in its physical as well as conceptual approach. Sadequain’s involvement in the Hindu myth and the grotesque attitude towards life, attracted him towards horrifying, dynamic and exaggerated topics and themes (a semi baroque influence), especially when he was not illustrating poetry as his first choice.

Two more pen and ink drawings ‘Soul and Body (from society and the stranger 1970)’ and ‘The Webbed (1966)’, also demonstrate the thematic drama and the symbolic rendering by the artist. In ‘Soul and Body’, the painter by personifying the non-corporeal subject of soul into corporeal existence of body through conceptually abstract and practically tangible practice of painting, has successfully put forth a vibrant show which may be considered a step towards self-realization or self-consciousness, as a romanticist, while through exploring the depths of inner world with reference to the outer one, he could be seen as an artist inspired by the modern theories of ‘expressionism’ based on the Freudian16 theories of psychology.

‘The Webbed’ is also a drawing with an overstatement by the artist, being caught in the desolation. Here too the painter has embodied an abstract feeling through a concrete symbol of web. The human struggle has been put in focus with the suggested movements through the cognate linearity. His comprehension of life is on a subtle point where he wants to give voice to his gruesome experiences, for that the painter is found busy in painting distorted figures, putting voice to his innate feelings and experiences, the artist has always been vulnerable of.

Akber Naqvi has stated this experience of Sadequain in these words:

“He dealt with truth and illusion at more than an aesthetic level; he remained engaged, throughout his life, in pain and in sickness.”

(Naqvi 365)

Other than his sketches and drawings, his paintings also display influences of diverse origins as stated in the beginning of this paper. One painting ‘Quest for knowledge (1959)’ presents distorted figures, dramatic arrangement (composition), and movement. Especially the characters clad in Egyptian robes on the horse back, going after the book of knowledge, depict an exaggerated approach of the artist which ultimately has added dynamism within the frame and the effect that the figure on a galloping horse will just get out of the frame from the left side, implies an event being enacted. Symbolic, romantic and expressionistic approach could be seen at a time while Sadequain’s work seems greatly inspired by mentioned art movements.

Another painting ‘The eternal female (1962-63)’ with distortion of the female body into a monstrous creeping creature advocates the mythological characterization, especially with reference to the aboriginal Hindu culture where the gods, goddesses and demons are portrayed with distortion and exaggeration in human or animal anatomy. The mythological treatment put on show the dramatic rituals, which have been part of sacred Hindu traditions as the Hindus have depicted almost each and every myth of Ramayana17 or Mahabharata18 in the form of famous dance-drama like Kathikali19 or Bharatnattyam20. The rudiments of ‘Natak21’, with supernatural characters and the element of horror, as the bizarre theme behind the painter’s mind, are obvious in this piece of work. Moreover, metaphorical and exaggerated approach and theatrical mode help us understanding the linkage of Sadequain’s perception with Indian traditions of expression and the forms of expressions all together, at an intrinsic and extrinsic analytical level.

A large mural painting at the State Bank Building Karachi under the title of ‘The treasures of time’ displays the historical and chronological qualities. This painting seems a tribute to human achievements and evolution with portraiture of geniuses from history, covering time periods from the Stone Age to the modern world. The panel painting is divided into four groups exhibiting four different eras of enlightened humanity through virtue and wisdom. In this painting, Sadequain looks greatly inspired by the revolutionary paintings of the modern art where the core reasons and the conceptual renderings were given more space.

Starting from the ancient world, Sadequain has painted the characters of Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Herodotus, Sophocles and Confucius. This group shows the philosophers busy in pondering, writers and mathematicians tiring for their goals, the atmosphere created by the background, suggest the city of Athens and some part of China. The whole painting seems like an act of the drama where the well-known thinkers and philosophers are performing, reminding the all famous line by Shakespeare;

“All the world’s stage.”

The second group in the same gigantic painting exhibits the famous Buddha and the Galileo, an astrologist. The painter has emphasized on the details in dress, architecture and texture, while the style seems very western in this panel since detailed realism is obvious.

Third group or act of this huge painting consists of the wizards from Arabia and Persian, the origin and cradle of the Muslim doctrine and ideology. With Avicenna, Al-Khwarzmi, Ibn al-Hasam, Ibn al-Hayan, Farabi, Firdausi, Al-Kundi, Ibn-i Rushd, Rumi, Al-Idrees and Ibn-i Khaldun, busy in their respective activities, the painter looks as if he is under nostalgic infatuations and trying to glorify the events and persons of the era bygone, here again the painter has adopted a romantic attitude and have also practiced it in a romantic manner, where he also seems looking for his own individuality within these great personalities. In this group, it appears that the composition, characters and their costumes have been changed according to the painter’s own conceived requirements. Here on the upper areas behind the figures, light is cast on dramatically to spot them and their importance, which reminds us the dramatic light effects of Caravaggio in his biblical and thematic paintings of late sixteenth century.

In the fourth group of this panel, the painter has tried to cast his spot light on the genius of the western world, famous figures like, Leonardo da Vinci, Newton and Goethe put diversity and an evolved historical chronology of the European pursuit of wisdom through art, philosophy and science. The architectural background here changes as the set changes behind the performers while the theatrically postured figures put forward the idea of change in embryonic time.

Keeping the pace alive, Sadequain paints the sixth group with Iqbal, Einstein, Tagore, Karl Marx, Walt Whiteman and Darwin, as the spotlight is cast to highlight the 20th century modern theories of wisdom and philosophy around the globe. The whole panel, in figure arrangement, kinesics, postures, facial expressions, and the chronology, put forward a sense of dynamic composition and ambiance, within the whole panel and from one group to the other.

No artist could conceive an idea without prior concepts and knowledge that prevails through his mind and thoughts therefore, inspirations and influences are inevitable. One generation after experiencing diversity of life in thoughts and action, pass on the evolved wisdom and knowledge to its descendants. Sadequin was born when the entire world was on the brim of change in terms of economic and political scenario as two world wars have changed the shape and the course of the history and geographical boundaries of the globe. New theories, based on science and technology were in fashion and modern ideas in philosophy and psychology were challenging the centuries old traditions. All these elements were casting deep shadows on almost all branches of knowledge and all forms of art. Sadequain has witnessed the modern art movement at its zenith and the beginning of the post modern. But at the same time, owing to his own circumstances and geographical and conceptual linkages, he observed the indigenous traditions of expression, which were deeply rooted in the soil of Indus Valley.

Religious doctrines of Islam and Hinduism also inspired him with its association with the richness of Persian traditions and the rhythms of Vedic experiences, respectively. The diversity of cultures that the subcontinent absorbed to the maximum, with an acculturation of Arabian, Persian and local Jain, Hindu and Buddhist ethnicities, also inspired his concepts to a level of grotesque evolution. In view of the fact that subcontinent was under the British rule, Sadequain, under the western influential art movements like, romanticism, modernism and tinges of Baroque elements like horror, exaggeration, metamorphosis and theatricality, moved on to blend the western influences with the indigenous concepts derived from the epics like Mahabharta and Ramayna, while the Persian poetic ideology of Rumi and Firdausi reached him through the verses of Iqbal and Ghalib.

So by painting myths, religious doctrines (although through Malamat), poetic ideas, and epic characters, in symbolic, romantic and modern way and technique, Sadequain has given vent to varied inspirations and influences that were always behind his collective as well as individual conscience. Even in his aboriginal approach, since he is a Bengali by origin, educated in India and settled in Karachi (Pakistan), he experienced all the shades of diverse cultures; he had been living in, from Bengali-Muslim to Hindu-Indian to Muslim-Pakistani. A crucible, he became, as an artist within his approach and thought. That is why his works do not present a single shade of one individual when seen collectively.


A List of the Ascended Masters List

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This is a list of the Ascended Masters, Cosmic Masters, Deva, Elohim and Archangels in Alphabetical order. Those who have the term god or goddess with their name are Cosmic Masters, and have attained god consciousness. The list is by no means complete, as these are only some of those who are choosing to work closest with the Earth at this time and so are in our awareness. There are also a vast number of Masters working on other paths.

Afra – Patron of Africa.

Akshobhya – a Dhyani Buddha.

Aloha – Feminine Elohim if the 6th Ray – her twin flame is Peace.

Alpha – the highest manifestation of the god energy in the Central Sun, his twin is Omega.

Amaryllis – goddess of Spring, and so the spirit of spring.

Amaterasu – Japanese goddess of the Sun.

Amazonia – the feminine Elohim of the first ray.

Amen Bey – he works closely with Serapis Bey, and also works with the youth of the world.

Amerissis – goddess of Light.

Amethyst – also known as Holy Amethyst is Archeia of the 7th Ray.

Amitabha – a Dhyani Buddha.

Amoghasighi – a Dhyani Buddha.

Amora – the feminine Elohim of the 3rd Ray.

Apollo – Elohim of the 2nd ray and twin flame of Lumina, they are guardians of the Cosmic Christ Consciousness.

Arcturus – Elohim of the 7th ray along with his twin flame Victoria.

Ariel – feminine Archangel.

Astrea – feminine Elohim of the 4th Ray.

Aurora – archeia of the 6th Ray with her Twin flame Archangel Uriel.

Babaji – Babaji, known to us via Paramahansa Yogananda’s books, is an Un-ascended Master. He chose to stay on earth with a physical body, till all of humanity ascended. This is a service of great value as his presence anchors the Light of the higher planes into the earth.

Brahma – is part of the Hindu trinity, of Brahman, Vishnu and Shiva. Brahma is the creator aspect.

Casimir Poiseidon – an old Ascended Master from South America.

Cassiopea – Elohim of the Central Sun.

Celeste – a Devic Angel of the Ascended Hosts.

Cha Ara – a Fifth Ray Master.

Chamuel – the Archangel of the third ray, he is a manifestation of Divine Love.

Chananda – Chief of the Indian council of the Great White Brotherhood.

Charity – the Archeia of the Third ray.

Charity – A cosmic Being.

Christine – Archeia of the 2nd ray.

Confucius – a 2nd ray Master.

Cuzco – Emissary of the god Surya.

Cyclopea – masculine Elohim of the 5th ray for truth, healing and knowledge.

Deva of Light – A Cosmic Being.

Deva of the Central Sun – a Cosmic Being.

Dom Ignacio – best known as the Ascended Master working with John of God in Brazil.

Djwhal Khul – known also as “The Tibetan” he was one of the wise men along with Kuthumi and El Morya.

Elijah – the prophet, as mentioned in the Bible. He returned to earth as John, the Baptist though he was already an Ascended Master.

El Morya – Chohan of the 1st ray.

Enoch – priest of the Sacred fire.

Eriel– a Chinese Ascended Master.

Ernon – an Atlantean ruler, the Rai of Suern.

Eros – a Cosmic Master – also known as the god of Love.

Faith – Archeia of the first ray, and twin flame of Archangel Michael.

Faith – a Cosmic Master.

Fortuna – the goddess of supply.

Gabriel – Archangel of the fourth ray.

Gautama Buddha – Lord of the World.

Harmony – a Cosmic Master.

Hathor – an Egyptian Great Mother goddess.

Helios – god of the Central Sun.

Hercules – Elohim of the 1st ray.

Heros – Elohim of the 3rd ray.

Hilarion – Chohan of the 5th ray.

Hope – Archaeia of the fourth ray.

Hope – a Cosmic Master.

Isis – an Egyptian goddess.

John, the Baptist – he became an Ascended Master in his life as Elijah, the prophet.

Jophiel – Archangel of the 2nd Ray.

Krishna – a Cosmic Master.

Kuthumi – the World Teacher and a master of the 2nd Ray.

Kwan Yin – goddess of Mercy – not to be confused with White Tara. Many think they are the same Being, but their energies are very different.

Lakshmi – goddess of Prosperity.

Lao Tze – a Chinese Ascended Master of the 2nd Ray.

Lanto – Lord Lanto is Chohan of the 2nd Ray.

Ling – Lord Ling a Chinese Ascended Master was previously Moses.

Lumina – the Feminine Elohim of the 2nd Ray with her twin flame Apollo.

Ma’at – Egyptian goddess of balance.

Maha Chohan – Chohan of all the 8th ray.

Mahakala – a Buddhist protector deity.

Maitreya – the Cosmic Christ and planetary Buddha.

Manjushri – Boddhisattva of Wisdom.

Mary Magdalene – a newly Ascended Master.

Mother Mary – as the mother of Jesus she was already an Ascended Master having attained her Ascension in a previous life.

Melchizedek – an Ascended Master of the 7th Ray.

Meta – an Ascended Master of the 5th Ray.

Michael – Archangel of the 1st Ray.

Milarepa – a Tibetan Ascended Master.

Nada – Lady Nada is Chohan of the 6th Ray, she works to heal the inner child within us all.

Omega – the highest manifestation of the goddess energy in the Central Sun, her twin is Alpha.

Omri-Tas – a cosmic Master of the Violet Flame.

Osiris – the Egyptian god of the afterlife.

Pallas Athena – the goddess of Truth.

Paul, the Venetian – Chohan of the 3rd Ray.

Peace – masculine Elohim of the 6th ray.

Peace – goddess of Peace.

Portia – Lady Ascended Master of the 6th Ray for Justice.

Purity – masculine Elohim of the 4th Ray.

Purity – goddess of Purity.

Ra-mun – also spelt Ra-mu – an ascended Master of the 7th ray and previous Chohan of the 7th Ray.

Raphael – Archangel of the 5th Ray.

Ratnasambhava – a Dhyani Buddha.

St Germain – Chohan of the 7th ray.

Sanam Kumara – A cosmic Master – he is so vast he has to manifest a body for the Ascended Masters to see him.

Sanat Kumara – Lord of the World and the Ancient of Days.

Serapis Bey – Chohan of the 4th Ray.

Uriel – Archangel of the 6th Ray.

Uzziel – Archangel of the 8th Ray.

Vairochana– a Dyani Buddha

Vajrakilaya– a Buddhist deity who has attained diamond consciousness.

Vesta – goddess of the home.

Victoria – feminine Elohim of the 7th Ray.

Virginia – feminine Elohim of the 5th ray for truth, healing and knowledge.

White Tara – goddess of Compassion.

Zadkiel – Archangel of the 7th Ray.


Diversity: IBM versus Monitor Company – What Can We Learn?

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A question for executives to answer is whether they are on board with diversity in their organizations’. Taking a cursory view of diversity at IBM versus Monitor Company, one sees an outward projection at IBM and inward projection at Monitor. The executives of these two global business giants do not have a shared strategy of diversity.

In a 2006 article, Melissa Jenkins1 reported the findings of 120 HR professionals from Fortune 1000 companies. These professionals used terms to define diversity as “direct impact” and “competitive edge.” The statistics she encountered include 79 percent believe diversity enhances corporate culture. Seventy-seven percent reported diversity improved recruitment and the same percentage said diversity improves worker morale. The largest percentage, 91 percent, found diversity helps keep their organizations competitive. How do these statistics relate to IBM and Monitor?

This comparative analysis considers circumstances, as they existed, when the original authors wrote their case studies. Therefore, this report is only a snap shot of realities then. A future study may interpret events differently based on new data.

The Companies

International Business Machines is the long name for IBM known globally for mainframe and PC computers; however, IBM is more than computers. IBM is software, IT services, servers, business consulting, and a host of other operations related to technology. From the IBM web site,, we read,

At IBM, we strive to lead in the invention, development and manufacture of the industry’s most advanced information technologies, including computer systems, software, storage systems and microelectronics.

We translate these advanced technologies into value for our customers through our professional solutions, services and consulting businesses worldwide.

In the end, IBMers determined that our actions will be driven by these values:

o Dedication to every client’s success

o Innovation that matters, for our company and for the world

o Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships

These statements support the claim of IBMs outward projection on customers and relationships.

Monitor Company is a global group of consultants with expertise in vital areas of leadership and management. They work in business networking, innovation management, market-to-customer, regional competitiveness, and executive development. Monitor appears driven by individual relationships between consultants and clients and individuality appears the norm in internal affairs. From the Monitor Company web site,, we read,

Monitor is structured as a group of companies, each of which aspires to link cutting edge intellectual property with a diverse array of human, technical, and financial assets in the service of helping our clients compete and win in their marketplaces.

Throughout our history, we’ve been blessed with customers who not only found value in our services, but were committed to our success and growth. We benefited immensely from the patience and commitment demonstrated by our early, relationship clients and from the spirit and hard work of colleagues dedicated to building a firm which could offer both highly competitive services and a highly collegial work environment. Our proudest accomplishment remains our ability to attract and retain so many talented individuals, and our highest ongoing priority is sustaining an environment which will continue to attract a diverse pool of accomplished individuals.

Reading the first quote, one can argue Monitor has an outward projection, yet reading the second quote suggests an approach to clients from an inward position.

Diversity Positions

IBM and Monitor are very different organizations but have many similarities. Both companies offer technology services, business consulting, and both are global. With worldwide operations, both have personalities representing international flare. With international flare, both have issues with diversity management.

The IBM stance is that diversity is an investment in the future of customers and the future of business, business development, and business diversification. Diversity did not receive lip service from the top rather it received commitment. The IBM diversity decision came with total buy-in from the top. Discussion of its implementation at IBM comes in future paragraphs.

At Monitor, diversity discussions started from survey results during their tenth anniversary year. The company commissioned a global Definition of Purpose exercise intent to learn Monitor’s “vision of itself as it grew into its second decade” (Grant 1994, pg. 2). The surprise result was how uncomfortable people felt in the homogeneous climate of Monitor. Establishment of diversity programs at monitor launched slowly from bottom up.

Implementation at IBM

Thomas2 wrote of his interview with IBMs Lou Gerstner about IBMs business turnaround in the mid 1990s. IBM had an aggressive human relations and EEO management system in place. What Gerstner discovered is that the equal employment opportunity program attempted to ignore differences rather than maximize them. What Gerstner recognized is the IBM customer base is diverse but leadership in the company did not reflect its customers.

IBM made a “significant philosophical shift” in implementing diversity. The tradition at IBM was to minimize differences. Gerstner and his primary implementation partner, Ted Childs, vice president of Global Workforce Diversity, needed to tell the entire organization that the shift was a strategic goal. To implement the departure from the old position to the new, IBM (Childs) selected Bastille Day, July 14, 1995. According to Childs, Bastille Day was appropriate because of its “historic day of social disruption.

We were looking for some constructive disruption.”

Gerstner and Childs with the assistance of Tom Bouchard, senior vice president of human resources, established eight task forces, each having 15 to 20 senior managers from eight different demographic constituencies. Within specific constituencies, the senior managers gather data on personnel trends, labor trends, and customer market trends. As these teams did their research, they discovered many similarities that became “The Vital Few Issues: Employees’ Biggest Diversity Concerns.” Now the task forces had areas from which they could begin exploring areas for business development.

As these senior managers began to think diversity, they began acting diversity. Within their specific operations, subordinate managers did not ignore these senior managers’ actions. Subordinate managers’ resistance soon shifted to the view that diversity is good for operations. IBM now has “pillars of change” including, demonstrated leadership support, engaged employees as partners, integrated diversity with management practices, and linked diversity goals to business goals

Implementation at Monitor

Monitor Company began to recognize diversity following a ten-year anniversary definition of purpose survey of the organization. Several members of the organization proposed Diversity Mentor Program that met with resistance. Reframing the proposal to as an Advisor Network, the firm’s Diversity Network gave empowerment to proceed. Monitor did not have full commitment at the top to diversity management rather it took a bottom up approach and resistance followed.

A significant event coming through director and senior manager level changed the focus of diversity. Women in these roles began to open up on issues of sexual harassment from clients and internal insensitive comments for co-workers. Kaplan, legal advisor and CFO, had a personal interest in matters of sexual harassment and harassment in general. Using a directors meeting, he expressed his concerns by relating how women in director and senior management roles actually felt, sharing how difficult it was for them to speak out.

Key players in the Advisory Network included Rotenberg, a gay employee with a long history of business success going back to his teens; he is also of Jewish faith. Also, Basden, an African-American noted the lack of minorities when he joined the company. Another is Singh-Molares, of mixed Indian and Hispanic decent. Born in Europe, he grew up in Manhattan where he attended the United Nations International School.

Grant3 writes in her analysis that Basden did not feel that directors understood diversity and that change was not likely. In a quote, Basden related that directors “don’t see the problem, physically don’t see the problem, mentally don’t see the problem.”

Writing of Singh-Molares, she quotes him as saying he sometimes feels different but not uncomfortable. Speaking on behalf of hiring practices, she quotes him that Monitor hires people with the special needs of the company, not hiring someone who will fail. “It doesn’t help [minorities] and it doesn’t help us.”

Another key members discussed by Grant is Martineau, a director, one of the first women hired by Monitor. She became a director in 1991. She felt like she had to be one of the “guys” while being the “first” female director. She explained in a board meeting that she often felt sexually harassed by clients. Further, she explained feeling like others considered women as disabled if they became pregnant. She described gender-hurdles at Monitor as external to the organization.

Firstbrook, is a senior manager, also a woman, and holds an engineering degree. She explained how difficult it is for a woman engineer to get ahead in a male dominated career. She supported Martineau’s position of external pressure relating how men perceive women giving consulting advice.

The Advisory Network had support; however, most consultants felt they would not use it. Rotenberg asked for time allocation for the work of the Advisory Network and received notice to work it as a collateral assignment.

The organization already had Professional Development Advisors for employees that were “formal and institutional.” They felt the Advisory Network should be “informal and personal.”

Armed with a new sensitivity, Fuller, the founding director, accepted the role of diversity as a tool to improve performance at Monitor. He issued a statement that began, “There is not a lot of dissent in our management ranks about whether we ought to be doing [something about diversity]. There is only anxiety…” Fuller, quoted by Grant, commented that because of his position, he feels separated from the rest of the organization and by virtue of is background is not qualified to execute “some of the tactical aspects of managing diversity… What I can do is act as a sounding board and I can as something of a sponsor.”

In the final assessment, Monitor did acquire top-down buy in to diversity management and from previous attempts at bottom-up diversity management, the Diversity Network became a reality with Fuller and Martineau overseeing its implementation.


IBM, from the most senior level, recognized the value of diversity as part of the culture. Further, they recognized their customer base was diverse and internally, they had to reflect their customer base to expand it into new areas and products. IBM became very successful at reinventing itself in its global market. Hoyle4 tells us that a clear-shared vision pulls people into a change process in a way that makes the vision happen. Hoyle shares four principles of persuasion that leaders need to employ in order for visionary change to occur. At IBM, Gerstner had these skills.

1. Identification Principle: Like cause and effect, addresses personal fears, hopes, and desires.

2. Action Principle: Either sponsored or by personal proof of a value of something, people will not buy in.

3. Principle of Familiarity and Trust: Acceptance of ideas comes through those we trust or regard and credible.

4. Clarity Principle: The idea must be clear, not confusing, not open to several interpretations

Monitor, it appears, was unconsciously unaware of the need to manage diversity even when facts began to emerge from its internal Definition of Purpose survey. Applying the four points above to Monitor, one concludes it was not prepared to take steps until reality from senior managers and directors manifested themselves in a directors meeting. Maxwell5 writes that leaders need to slow down, work at the pace of the organization, and be involved and engaged in dialogue at all levels. Fuller admitted feeling separated from the organization by position, although admitting he felt bad about that.

The title of this paper asks what we can learn. Organizational culture has formal and informal processes that link values and beliefs. IBM and Monitor possess both these links. Entering either company, a new recruit begins a socialization process and builds informal relationships while becoming more comfortable in their roles. Finally, over time, people naturally tend to one role or another that serve the organization in some formal or informal way6.

IBM learned the value of diversity linkage is economic. Improving their organizational population diversity opened new way of think about and serving a diverse customer population. Monitor learned that although it has highly motivated people in a good work environment, they needed to explore their vision of diversity. Emerging leaders often had differing views of what diversity meant. It became apparent that proponents of different advisory groups needed to link their resources for the greater personal and organizational good.

Another view of the two organizations is the value placed on individuals and groups. IBM operates in a manner that supports teamwork and group effort to accomplish goals. Monitor has an individual consultant/client operation valuing the effort of the consultant in a relationship to satisfy client needs. Observation of the diversity climate at IBM versus Monitor is an example of open climate versus closed. IBM projects outward to identify diversity needs and Monitor projects inward.


IBM improved its heterogeneity and improved its economic bottom line. Monitor seems to remain more homogenous yet sensitive to diversity of its population seeking to recruit more people from different backgrounds. In both cases, the organizations recognize equal employment opportunity and diversity do not ignore differences. Instead, they champion differences. IBM is more successful at maximizing them.

IBM, with its much larger reach in the global community learned the strength of diversity to cast light on customers and cast light internally. The IBM business commitment did not change because of diversity; rather it embraced other truths and other traditions to improve business. Monitor, intentionally or unintentionally, cast shadows on diversity; they seemed insecure with it or feared it, they denied it to themselves giving it evil properties. Their final acceptance of it came only after most senior members made it an open issue.7

In diversity and globalization, it is important to acknowledge the two sides of human nature. Confucius said, “Human beings draw close to one another by their common nature, but habits and customs keep them apart.”


5 Exotic Places To Visit In Taiwan

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If you want to visit a location that is exotic and has fantastic scenery, Taiwan is the answer for you. An island country, Taiwan is home to a prime Southeast Asian culture, tasty cuisines, amazing climate, and numerous forest parts and festivals. The capital city of Taipei boasts of vibrant culture and entertainment. Taiwanese cuisine is rated as one of the best on a global scale. So once you step into Taiwan, where do you go to experience the full grandiosity of Taiwan?

1. Taipei

The largest city and the capital of Taiwan, Taipei is the cultural, arts and the natural heartbeat of this landlocked country. Numerous artistic temples devoted to local deities dot the landscape. Famous among them is the Longshan and Taipei Confucius Temple. Taipei 101 captures your attention as the tallest skyscraper in the horizon. On New Year’s Eve, the platform serves as the tallest fireworks display in the world. There are numerous festivals like lantern festival, ghost day celebrations, double ten day etc. These festivals liven up the atmosphere and you should be there to experience the feeling. Taiwan tour packages are incomplete with an authentic festival experience.

2. Nantou

The second largest city in Taiwan, Nantou is home to the most famous tea plants, the oolong teas. See the original teas grown in full splendor. The mountainous landscape makes it very dear to trekkers and mountain hikers. Notable hiking trails include Maolan and Hanbi hiking trails. You should also definitely visit the Cingjing farm, which boasts of luscious farms of oolong trees.

3. Kaohsiung

From its humble roots as a small trading firm, Kaohsiung has grown into an economic powerhouse. You will find many refining and shipbuilding industries here. The city boasts of stable and strong infrastructure, which enabled it to host 2009 world games. The primary attractions in this beautiful city include, Liuhe Night Market, World games stadium and a great resource of nature with forests. Taiwan travel packages ensure a stop in Kaohsiung.

4. Hsinchu

Did you know that most of the worlds’ electronic items are made in Taiwan? Your phone probably was made in Hsinchu, the leading electronic manufacturing hub in Taiwan, and probably the whole world. The Hsinchu technological zone is home to IT offices and leading giants like Huawei etc. Why don’t you come around and take a tour of the world’s leading electronic hub? You may even get great discounts while shopping here.

5. Kinmen

Kinmen is actually a group of islands under Taiwanese administration. The major attraction is knives made from the unexploded arsenal during the Chinese Civil War. Kinmen noodles are equally famous as a delicacy. Collect your kinmen knives as a souvenir and make your Taiwan stay memorable.

The above five places showcase what Taiwan is all about. Make sure you book your Holiday Packages to Taiwan from an established travel agency to enjoy the full benefits.


Tropical Rainforests – 4 Ways to Stop Deforestation

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It’s hard to imagine that we would knowingly destroy something so valuable; could it be that we are destroying them before we realize their worth? Before we truly understand their biodiversity? And even before we fully understand the life and the ecosystems they support?

Massive deforestation brings with it many horrifying consequences – air and water pollution, soil erosion, the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the eviction and decimation of indigenous Indian tribes, and the extinction of many plants, animals and creatures. Fewer rainforests mean less rain, less oxygen for us to breathe, and an increased threat of global warming.

Confucius said, “A man who has committed a mistake and doesn’t correct it, is committing another mistake.” Clearly deforestation is man’s mistake. So how do we correct this mistake? Can we correct this mistake?

If deforestation ceased today, it would help immensely, but unfortunately would not be enough. We have lost complete species, both in plant and animal life; however, all is not lost. What we can hope for in bringing deforestation to an end is a new beginning; new species to evolving and the rebirth of this diminishing treasure.

With the rapid loss of Earth’s rainforests, it’s time to correct our mistake. There is no simple solution or quick fix, but there are definitely steps that can be taken to stop the deforestation and restore not only the damaged ecosystems, but the beauty of life that’s been lost.

Four Invaluable Steps to Saving Our Rainforests:

Step #1: Education

In the last 20 years, deforestation has claimed millions of square miles of tropical rainforests, and to protect their future we need to develop sound educational initiatives. Education programs and curricula for each grade level is vital as children of today are our future. Encouraging good global citizenship in school aged children will help them develop a deeper understanding of conservation challenges, as well as a healthy respect for the environment. Education cannot, however, stop with school-aged kids; adults need the same education about deforestation and preventative measures.

Educational resources are now becoming widely available to educators. For example, Paradise Earth Scholastic is Paradise Earth’s academic service and the Internet’s premier source for rainforest education, replete with educational curricula for first and secondary education, multimedia educational features, and resources for research and teaching.

Step #2: Conservation Policies

Saving tropical rainforests is a worldwide responsibility, not just the responsibility of the country the forests are home to. Stronger policies prohibiting deforestation need to be written and enforced; our responsibility lies quite a bit deeper. If the international community wants to provide a higher level of protection of these forests, financial resources have to be a major part of the conservation strategy.

Historically, world governments have been willing to grant loans to tropical nations, and in some cases even cancel debts owed by them in exchange for environmental protection. For example, the British government recently assigned $150 million to preservation and sustainable development of tropical forests around the globe. Germany cleared Kenya of its $400 million debt when Kenya agreed to pass environmental legislation.

In 2001, President Clinton proposed $150 million in funds to assist developing countries preserve their tropical forests while strengthening their economies. Under the budget, $100 million would go towards conservation programs (through the U.S. Agency for International Development-USAID), while $37 million would be slated for debt-for-nature swaps under the Tropical Forest Conservation Act.

In addition to financial support, developed nations can also provide their conservation expertise to developing countries and assist in the planning of new protected areas.

Step #3: Restore & Re-grow

Though fully restoring our lost rainforests seems impossible, a myriad of studies and rebirth projects have been conducted worldwide.

In September 2008 the announcement came that the first Kihansi spray toadlet was born at the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Bronx Zoo. This little creature was last seen in the wild May of 2005. The birth of the Kihansi toadlet has renewed hopes that the species can someday be successfully reintroduced to its natural habitat in a remote gorge in Tanzania.

In other news, researchers from the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Sciences (BTI) on the Cornell campus are attempting what many thought was impossible — restoring a tropical rain forest ecosystem. Ten years after the tree plantings, Cornell graduate student Jackeline Salazar counted the species of plants that took up residence in the shade of the new-planted areas. She found remarkably high numbers of species — more than 100 in each plot. And many of the new arrivals were also to be found in nearby remnants of the original forests.

It may take hundreds of years to regain what has been lost, but every year we see evidence that the “impossible” is actually quite possible.

Step #4: Support Ecotourism

According to United Nations World Tourism Organizatio, sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.

Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment while enhancing the cultural integrity of local people and their economy. From 1993 to 2003 alone, tourism to 23 countries harboring biodiversity hotspots grew by 100 percent.

At first glance, it seems that ecotourism was designed for the traveler, but its intent is much greater. Ecotourism creates jobs in food and beverage service, hotel and resort industry, transportation, and many other industries. Because Ecotourism relies on healthy ecosystems, it provides a powerful incentive to protect our rainforests. People who earn their living from ecotourism are more likely to protect local natural resources and support conservation efforts.

Correcting the “mistake” of deforestation could still be probable; but not without an overdose of human effort to finally bring an end to the demise of tropical rainforests. No matter how unreachable this goal may seem, our mistake still has a chance of being corrected.


Inspirational Quotes for the Disheartened Soul

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You sometimes hurdle times where in you feel extremely down that you just want someone to throw you some inspirational quotes. Here are some selection of inspirational quotes and ways to apply it in real life.

1. Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is a mystery. Today is a gift. That is why we call it the present. – Babatunde Olatunji

Most people, they set their future goals too high that it is almost impossible to reach it at a realistic timeframe. Stop complaining about the past. No matter what you do, time will never rewind itself on that day you made a mistake. So cherish the moment now. Who knows, you may regret the time that you never took a chance to ride that roller coaster when you still can.

2. Do not let what you cannot do stop you from doing what you can do. – John Wooden

This inspirational quote tells us that everyone has a weakness but that does not mean you do not have strength. You must be good at something and that is what you should cultivate.

3. Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall. – Confucius

This inspirational quote says that the heart of a champion always pursues his goals. That is why when they reach their aim, they often reap the sweetest glory for the reason that they rose after the fall.

4. To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all. – Oscar Wilde

True indeed, most people are solely on earth for mere extinction. The bible even tells us that we should do things in the name of the Lord. At the start of the day you should say, “I dedicate my work to you, oh Lord.” That way, you do not just exist, you are living. One distinction between living and existing is HAVING A PURPOSE.

5. The only man who never makes a mistake is the man who never does anything. – Theodore Roosevelt

Of course, how can you achieve something if you do not act on it? You are a human being, not a thing who does not move or breathe.

6. Blessed are those who can give without remembering and take without forgetting. – Elizabeth Bibesco

This inspirational quote tells us that when we give or share something, we oftentimes expect something in return. But it is indeed always better to give than to receive. You may not be compensated here on earth, but God will not forget that good deed you just made.

7. If you want to be happy, be. -Leo Tolstoy

Most people wallow in sadness because they choose to. If your lover left you for another person, why mourn over them. There are more than 6 Billion people around the world and one of them can appreciate you even more and will be afraid of losing you. So choose to be happy instead.

8. Never tell me the sky is the limit when there are footprints on the moon. -Anonymous

This is the real world and as crazy as it is, you are only limited by how far you think you can achieve. So do not stop achieving your dreams.

9. Everything is okay in the end, if it is not ok, then it is not the end. -Anonymous

This is one of the inspirational quotes that tell us not to give up. Challenges are already part of life what you need to do is keep going until everything falls into the right place.


7 Reasons to Be Proud to Be Irish

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a times with all the financial scandals that we now hear about losing sight of our true spirit. If this is Irish, American, English, Scottish or whatever, it is important to remember our true spirit that is much greater than any recession and much deeper than any financial storm surface. In fact perhaps this very financial storm is the catalyst to realign us with our true spirit and values. What might be some of these values? What do you think they are? Three values you would like that their nationality to have?

here is some important values that make me proud to be Irish:

1. Generosity of spirit -“when I’m hungry I got someone to feed” is what I believe that Mother Theresa said. Perhaps because of our history, particularly the 1847, when 1 million Irish died of starvation and 1 million had to emigrate (a quarter of the Irish population at the time) have been very generous in giving to the causes of the world and many Irish have dedicated all his life to help the less well off. It allows to show the world that our generosity far surpasses any ambition that has been highlighted in recent times.

2. friendship – “Cead Mile Failte” this assumption means 100,000 welcomes. The Irish have been known as a very friendly breed and it has in fact been an attraction for many tourists over the years. Let us open our hearts once more to welcome everyone in our island and Irish kindness true experience, fun and great value!

3. family values – “the strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the House” – Confucio. The future of the human race is in our children, not to our portfolio of property or participation. First of all, we must give our children our love and our time. To give them our time, a resource that none of us will never again showed on a deep level the important thing to us and how much we love them. Until very recent times, the Irish were known to be very relaxed and we had more time for our families and others. They allow us to give more time to our families and as a society allows this reward rather than reward to those who sell investments without scruples. We must learn to teach our children well because the future of humanity depends on it.

4. sporting values – the Irish play the sport around the world if his Gaelic football, soccer, rugby, boxing, athletics, cycling and so on. And there is a sure thing, we are known for having a lot of fun about it. We carry music and “fun” to everything if you win or lose. Lets keep this celebration!

5. a deep sense of history – there are literally millions of people around the world, particularly in the United States who claim Irish decent, now more than the Irish! Throughout the centuries the Irish influence has spread widely and there is a lot to be proud of. Once even called us the “island of Saints and scholars”. Allows you to remember the great town that once walked this land, our mothers and fathers, our writers and poets, our athletes, our true visionary, musicians, our economists and business people who built their careers with integrity and a sense of service, the current clergy that is intended to educate us in mind and spirit, our doctors, our teachers our political truth and the millions more that gave their lives in the greater service in Ireland and indeed all humanity. It is due to his sacrifice and vision that we enjoy all the blessings that we have today. It is the question we must now ask ourselves – what blessings will leave for our children?

6. A spiritual connection – “Be still and know”. The Irish have always had a tradition spiritual, in fact we’ve had a few and they have often fought over them! However no matter what religion or even no religion we have aligned with, the Irish always have felt a strong connection with the divine. There are countless historical sites around Ireland, echoing this spiritual wisdom of our ancestors. Let’s not get caught up in too much “doingness” of life that we have no time to enjoy the journey of “being” and the connection with this invisible divine presence that is always with us. In fact this presence constantly offers us guidance on the voyage of our life, we must take the time to listen.

7. Peace prevails in Ireland – approximately 800 years there have been problems in Ireland, mainly with our closest neighbours, the English. In 1998 signed a peace agreement and in this stage have even disarming the IRA. However, how much celebration is it did about peace? How much we hear about evolution positive since the peace agreement was signed? How much we got offer many other places of conflict around the world to help peace to take place there? Peace in the main carried out in Spain, lets at least put so much energy to spread this amazing news as we do to bombard the world with bad news!

these seven given values of one I am proud to say that I am Irish. Of course I’m sure there are many more reasons to be proud to be Irish and I invite you to share yours in the comments. Also I invite you if you’re from any other nationality to share reasons why you are proud of your nationality. As the Chinese say “it is better to light a candle that curse the darkness”

here is another verse of a song to finish this article.

when Irish hearts we are happy all the world seems bright and gay.
and when they are smiling Irish eyes,
insurance, steal your heart away.


Could Macartney’s Mission to China in 1793 Have Succeeded?

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the debate around the question of why no Macartney in 1793 can easily become reductive over-emphasizing the absence of Macartney homage to Chinese standards of ritual. However this explores just a bias of the debate focusing solely on the event and Mr Macartney; that in turn becomes a perspective Westernized with no deep understanding of the Chinese geo-political context during the 18th century. The argument must take into account Western goals and objectives surrounding the Macartney Embassy China company, and why that was in conflict with the values and principles of Chinese Confucianism and the conformity of traditional Chinese culture by the Celestial Empire. As Byng and Levere assumptions (1981), ‘ failure of the Embassy is shown to reveal fundamental differences in the responses of the 18th century British and Chinese science; and it has large cultural implications. The article tries to tackle the Macartney Embassy debate from the scientific context of cultural analysis, rather than mere historical importance of the event that creates a transitional character of Macartney and negative debate to make the tribute.

scientific and cultural understanding will be the focus of the proposed debate. As Attwell, ‘ on the surface of this failure appeared to activate the rejection of Macartney follow Chinese Protocol… in Imperial terms Chinese, the preeminent position of the Emperor in the Celestial hierarchy ‘. Attwell argument shows the importance of identifying point of view Celestial of the Qing Empire, China culture of traditionality and disinterest and ambivalence towards the «barbarians of the Western Ocean ‘.» This develops the argument that the mission due to the cultural conflictions of two Empires was doomed from the start. But importantly, maintain a holistic view of the contexts of both Empires will be essential to understand whether the mission was capable of success or not. The argument takes the position that Macartney was condemned to failure from the start, not because of lack of tribute of Protocol, or his character, but because at this point during the 18th century, the two empires were polar opposite of geo-political and firmly rooted in there different and conflicting visions of the world. The ‘ Embassy, in fact, was rejected before it became ‘.

first, the rise of the British Empire during the 18th century explains the mentality coinciding lighting that Britons increasingly more adopted and applied nationally as part of their culture; and the measure to cope with foreign powers to determine how civilised were compared with British achievements. The values and principles of the Enlightenment were those of rationality and observation; as a result the scientific method emerged from the period of the enlightenment and spreading the use of State and fields as historical research. The vision of the British world became increasingly more scientific, and the ‘scientific explosion’ of knowledge during the 18th century contributed to the growing faith of Britain in the sciences. Illustration and promoting the continual development and science was a concept totally alien to China; deeply rooted in the worldview of Confucianism and Heavenly predominance. As feared Attwell, ‘ Qing China… people were evaluated according to their level of civilization in connection with the perfection of the Celestial Empire.

for the British, this position had to do with their level of scientific achievement ‘. The mere concept of the enlightenment was the awakening of new ideas and methods, new rules of study progress, which resulted in Great Britain, adopting the method of industrialization that would make the largest empire Great Britain during the 18th century. On the other hand the Chinese were not aware of the progress of Britain and Europe scientifically and economically as powers, this lack of awareness and concern, is what makes the debate of Macartney historically significant and interesting for research because it marks the contrast between the two civilizations, particularly as the context of the times. The Chinese did not believe that those outside their celestial borders would contribute to the greatness of the celestial Empire, with the son of the sky as the ruler. The Chinese expressed by Gregory “were secure and confident in their world.” These issues of cultural division and cultural priorities, are issues that are directly based on the lack of Macartney to ensure the objectives of the Embassy of Great Britain in 1792. These cultural differences and cultural conflict rules is the root and essence after the failure of the Macartney Embassy, and is due to these, that Macartney could not achieve a successful Embassy regardless of a successful tribute or not tribute.

another obstacle to the success of the enterprise of Macartney was Confucianism roots deep in China; These principles had existed in China for hundreds of years and were inherently part of the cultural life and the Chinese national identity. Illustration contradicted the principles and virtues of Confucianism, particularly power reinforced, as Byng and underscore Levere Emperor that Confucianism Celestial ‘according to the theory of Confucius, the virtue of the Emperor, as son of heaven and the universal rule, inevitably attract the barbarians to his court… see for themselves superiority of China’. The Chinese believed that through exposure to his country and Court bids to the Emperor, foreigners were therefore accept submission to the Celestial Empire and accept the hierarchy of the universal leader. Reasons for the Chang-Ku letter ts’ung-Pien I, BP cited for Byng, provides an in-depth understanding in the Chinese mentality of Western interpretation. The letter is from the “termination Grand’ Governors from China, reads the letter, ‘naturally we should grant his request that they can satisfy their sincerity in navigation across the seas in his yearning for civilization’.” The position is assumed through the Declaration of ‘longing for civilization’ than the Chinese are those who possess this civilization and that foreigners are seeking through the culture of the Celestial Empire. The British however did not see China in this way, appreciating China with curiosity, but not as a superior power. Coincidentally Macartney would not accept this proposal implied subordinate their sovereign King to a foreign Emperor. A conflict of visions of the British and Chinese world became a conflict of ego, each believing in his own superiority, however the British wanted to open the Chinese diplomatic acceptance of British power.

Chinese remained introverted, in his world of Center, neither willing nor interested in accepting the scientific advances of Britain. Two separate worlds, and Macartney event shows the disappointment of the two continents, as Gillingham quoted Alain Peyrefitte, ‘ a collision of two planets… one celestial and Lunar; the other with their feet firmly on the ground, commercial, scientific and industrial’. Observation is one of the patronizing sentiment on behalf of the Chinese statement attributes, but it accurately reflects the extensive nature of the cultural gap between the two powers. In addition, the importance of identifying “Eurocentrism accounts» the culture of China is important for historical conclusions because it is implied by the citation from Gillingham that scientific method adopted by the West was successful or higher compared with virtues speech apparently negative of China at that time. Another example of a statement of Gillingham, ‘surprising case of a clash between an advanced, dynamic society and one traditional and unchanging’, shows the accounts Westernized change according to the measure of success based on the principles of industrialization such as trade and economy. The Chinese description of a successful nation and culture were completely differently from the British; the scientific method represents a foreigner methodology and quantification to the hierarchy China, as Pritchard points out there were ‘problems of early relations with the West arising from divergent practices and ideas’. The Chinese had different and alternative methods of dealing with foreigners; the embrace of extended celestial borders was not an interest of the Qing dynasty.

the issue of trade became a common problem which resulted in the failure of the Macartney Embassy. The British conducted trade in economic power and free trade, the Chinese do not however trade with foreigners for financial gain but rather by compassion for dependent foreign trader on tea and silk trades of China; that Britain was becoming increasingly more dependent because of the growing demand. The Chinese had an alternative belief in trade; trade was meant for the self-sufficiency of the country does not have, this approach was based on the values of Confucianism; an approach described by Landes cited by Attwell as a result ‘cultural triumphalism combined with petty tyranny down made China a reluctant promoter and bad student’. The statement does not reflect however a understanding of the context of 18th-century Chinese cultural values, as he argued, China refused to change or adapt to the British paradigm of scientific methodology and social progression. A more accurate account of Chinese culture would emphasize the geopolitical landscape of selfishness and introversion d(e) the relationship of China with foreigners. As it identifies Cramner – Byng, ‘ the Macartney Embassy did not succeed in piercing the armor of cultural superiority as characterized by the system of tribute to the Chinese Empire’. The argument reflects the conviction that Macartney not could have been successful regardless the procedure tribute performed according to Chinese official standards and cultural division. But the motivations and objectives of Britain only one facet of the reasons why Macartney was inconceivably condemned from the moment that came out of Britain.

the East India Trading Company is particularly concerned with the success of the Embassy of China, want to set new standards that would benefit Britain by giving access to potentially desirable ports of trade speculation; Gillingham abbreviated ‘there was however frustrations in the rigid controls imposed at a port in China, which was opened to foreign trade’. The company took such interest and pursued the dedication to the Embassy which established a Commission to oversee the mission, the secret and the Superintendency Committee. However the Committee did not have a grasp of Chinese traders Hong and aspirations of the leaders of the elite. Therefore the Macartney Embassy did not have full preparation of ceremonial concepts within Chinese culture and the effect on the State involved towards the emperor. Macartney, in applying their sovereign to be the recipient of your tribute did not understand, or more probably underestimated, the hierarchical supremacy of the Emperor; Zewei says, ‘under the whole heaven, there is no land that is not the Emperor, and exist within the boundaries of land sea, who is not a subject of the Emperor’. Confucianism served as a doctrine to support energy Celestial Emperor on Chinese society and the world around China, but keep served as a means of social control over the Chinese and foreigners who visit the Celestial Empire to pay tribute to the world of the Center. The idea was one of conversion, as Byng and Levere cite, ‘ could see for themselves Chinese superiority… barbarians would naturally be anxious to come to transform ‘.

Macartney Embassy although a failure marked an important period for China, the realization of its forces from the external world and the changing balance of power transfer to Western colonizers. As Byng declares, ‘the Macartney Embassy was the writing on the wall, a warning that Chinese exclusivity may not be forever.’

However, the homage of Macartney implications are of relevance to the issue of the perceived lack of Macartney. The Chinese perspective is essential for understanding by which refusal of Macartney to Chinese customs ceremonial undermined key objectives of the Embassy. The Chinese believed the Embassy British was a standard procedure of ‘ceremonial homage of the Court’ and they held up signs saying that Lord Macartney had come to pay the Court with respect to the emperor. However, the British had several objectives, including the opening of several commercial ports and an officer of the British in the Chinese capital. These goals were against the Chinese, the Chinese Hanshen arguing they had not established any such ‘unprecedented’ with any of the other countries of the Western Ocean. The Embassy was a tribute, and treated as such, Mungello States, ‘the Chinese placed a banner in Macartney barge which clearly identifies it as an Envoy of homenaje-rodamiento of Great Britain’. The British wanted to stand out as an Embassy of their European counterparts, but the Chinese could not accept a distinction of Great Britain as different; so it would be to admit Britain from superior standards of treatment and precedent of reconciliations between the other branches of the Western Ocean. Lack of Macartney strongly can be attributed to the reluctance of China to separate Britain as different from the other powers, as Mungello concludes, ‘attempts to British to receive special treatment from the Chinese were sentenced by guest ritual obligations to treat equally all nations’.

‘ in many ways when the Embassy could hardly have been worse.’ Macartney expedition was a failure, but nevertheless proved to be insightful for the British, the Chinese Romance of the Jesuit era was far and exposed flaws and self-centered concept of themselves and the world from China. Macartney hoped a diplomatic solution, but the opium wars were an indictment of lost patience with the Celestial presence by the British. The context of two different cultures, cultures of conflict is what causes lack of Macartney. China was not ready to embrace the scientific and commercial values of the West, a move that would be destructive to China in the opium wars. But China, stable, now through the lands of the European continent. As Byng, ‘ Ch lung ‘ien and its officials seemed quite unaware that it was being questioned the position of Chinese supremacy in the world.’ The fact that the tribute was simply a response to the cultural divisions and strong convictions of both empires of its supremacy of values around the world, similar to an ideological struggle of culture. Tribute, represents the facet or face cultural apprehension and incompatibility between China and Great Britain as Hevia identifies, ‘ the contingency of ceremonial performance is important to note because in the 19th century and more later, it was claimed by diplomats and academics that the rigidity of the rites and the Chinese rejection to make alterations, in the heart of Sino-Western conflict ‘. The implications to the Macartney Embassy are evident in his failure.

Attwell, William bibliography. ‘Macartney failed trade delegation to China, 1792-1794’, quarterly newsletter of the National Library of Africa South, vol. 66. No. 1, (2012): 25-34.

Cranmer Byng, J.L and Trevor. H. Levere. ‘ a case study in cultural collision: scientific apparatus in the Macartney Embassy to China, 1793’, Annals of science, 38. (1981): 503-525.

Byng-Cranmer, J.L. ‘of the Lord Macartney Embassy of Beijing in 1793 of Chinese official documents’, the British Library: the University of Hong Kong (1961): 117-183.

Gillingham, Paul. ‘The Macartney Embassy,’ history today (November 1993): 28-34.

Gregory, John S. The West and China since the year 1500, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Hevia, James L. ‘ the last gesture of deference and vilification: humble in China’, past and present, (2009): 212-234.

Mungello, O.D. The great encounter of China and the West, Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2009.

Pritchard, Earl H. “at the Embassy Kotow Macartney to China in 1793”, The Quarterly of far East (1943): 163-202.

Zewi, Yang. ‘ Western international law and Confucianism from China in the 19th century: collision and integration ‘, Journal of the history of international law 13 (2011): 285-306.


Most Popular Stress Relief Management Audio Books

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you are one of those people that have enough hours of sleep, but not resting at all? First, the dream is somehow different from the rest. Rest is total body and mind relaxation while sleep is limited only to its definition as a natural state of bodily rest. Your body might have rested, but your mind has possibly not. Unconsciously, your mind might have been still worry about pending bills, their problems in the office, or his faithful spouse who has not come home, but since yesterday.

as said Confucius, “life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated”. Each of us literally took a complex life. Even babies have complicated life too. And too many complications mainly to stress. Every day, many people may experience stress very frequently and severely affected his used to be normal forms of life, as well as their physical and mental health. This is the main reason why more and more people are looking for every possible way and helps to reduce stress. Stress relief is not as simple and as easy as it may seem. To be fully and successfully relieved the tension, you need professional help or suggestions from people who have dedicated their lives to understand the meaning of stress and the importance of a stress-free life.

but then, instead of literally out on the street and have a serious discussion of a real-life professional, the computer can provide sufficient assistance to help you live to stress free life. I’m not talking a team with arms coming to built-in that it can give you that massage therapy has wanting. With just a few clicks and taps on the keyboard, access to a number of audio books that can be well oriented towards a stress-free life. These books are not like other public works such as the so-called talking books and all you have to do is listen and relax.

stress management audio books are offered on the internet; You can easily get at any time. One of the many popular audio books that we find on the Internet is the “8 principles of spiritual life” by Anthony Strano. In this audio book, Anthony Strano shares all his secrets and principles towards inner stability and joy our lives. These principles that he is very willing to share with all are mere products of all experiences and experiments, Strano has done in his 20 years of practice the spirituality of life. Popular categories included in the book are handling stress, personal growth and health and fitness. Audio book price is $7.92 but you can download today with just $5.75.

“a guide to eliminate stress and anxiety” by Andy guides is another book that has also been cleaning shelves these days. This audio book talks about the serious case of stress and anxiety, and the effective ways of dealing with them. Andy guides has experienced the same stress and anxiety that everyone has had. What he did to deal effectively with these things can be heard in their audio at only $10.99 book. A category including in his audio book is alternative therapies against stress and anxiety.

other audiobook look out for still comes from Andy entitled “A guide to guided relaxation” guides. The entire 2 hours and 59 minutes length of the book is filled with all the necessary tools for a guided relaxation, its benefits, the effects of stress, guide to a proper, sleep peacefully yoga, relaxation of images and much more. At $10.99, you can download this audiobook of self-help instantly and take advantage of effectively manage stress.

break Ups are also a potential source of stress for anyone. In some foreign countries, this has been a cause for suicide leader. This is why principal by Dr. James E. Walton made his book, “after breaking up: heals the heart and find happiness”. This one hour and 15-minute audio book addresses the positive growth of negative experiences, effective ways to full recovery, going on with life, the differences between men and women to break ups, the importance share the problem with other people, the benefits of hypnosis for such problem and much more help. At $7.99, you can quickly download this audio distributed but very short book.

in previous years, hypnosis has been considered as a medical practice that is effective for pain relief and some surgical procedures. Audio of Andy Guide book “A guide to hypnosis” reveals that this practice can go beyond and can be used for many purposes more healthy. With the audio of Andy Guide book, you can choose effectively a competent instructor of hypnosis, hypnosis benefits, how hypnosis can help you deal with diabetes and much more. This 3 hours and 10 minutes audio book is easily downloadable at the price of $10.99.

other than those mentioned above, internet shows many more audio books that have become popular not only for its author, but also with all the benefits it can offer to who cares to listen.